Cryptocurrency Dictionary - A Complete Definition to All Crypto Jargons


0x is a decentralized exchange for trading ERC 20 tokens. the 0x protocol facilities the trading of Ethereum based assets.
51% Attack
A 51% Attack is an attack on the crypto blockchain where a few miners control more than 50% of the network’s mining hashing rate. Learn more

Not relating to an object, existing as a thought or idea.
Adam Back
Adam Back is a widely known British crypto enthusiast, cryptographer, and cypherpunk.
Air Gap
A state where data cannot be accessed or corrupted.
Algo-Trading (Algorithmic Trading)
It is automated trading where orders are placed through a set of complex algorithmic patterns.
Algorithmic Stablecoin
An algorithmic stablecoin uses an algorithm that releases more coins when prices are high and buys them back when prices plummet.
A All-Time-Low is the lowest point in the price of a cryptocurrency in its history.
Angel Investor
An Angel Investor is a person who supports a new business venture financially.
Anti-Fragile is a characteristic of an asset that makes it do better whilst exposed to market volatility.
Anti-whale mechanism
An anti-whale mechanism is a syntax of code in a cryptocurrency’s algorithm is meant to discourage excessive selling of the holders by big holders.
Apeing is when a cryptocurrency trader buys a token immediately after being launched without conducting any detailed research.
Ashdraked is the loss of the entirety of a trader’s capital.
ASIC (Application-Specific Integrated Circuit device)
Asset-Backed Tokens
Asset-Backed Tokens are tokens that are backed by a physical asset.
Atomic Swap
Atomic Swap involves the transfer of cryptocurrency from one party to another without the use of an intermediary or exchange.
Attestation Ledger
Attestation Ledger is usually used to show that a financial transaction has occurred and show its authenticity.
Automated Market Maker
An automated market maker provides liquidity for an exchange through automated trading.

A cryptocurrency term is used to refer to the contents in a crypto holder’s portfolio. It is also used to refer to a large quantity of a particular cryptocurrency.
Baking is a term used by Tezos to mean the additions of new blocks of transactions onto its blockchain.
Banking as a Service (Baas)
Banking as a Service (Baas) ensures a better level of financial transparency by making Banks open the APIs+ for third parties to develop new services.
Batch Auctions
Batch auctions are trading tools where individual orders are assigned into a group (in batches) and executed at the same time.
Beartrap is the attempt at manipulating the price of a particular cryptocurrency in coordinated activities by a group of traders.
BEP-2(Binance Chain Tokenization Standard)
A technical standard for tokens on Binance chain
Bid-Ask-Spread is the price difference between what a willing buyer is willing to pay for an asset, and what the seller is looking to receive.
Bitcoin Halving
Bitcoin halving is done to reduce the potential wins of miners to sustain the value of the coin and to prevent too much circulation of bitcoin. The reward for a block reward is reduced by half. The last bitcoin halving occurred on May 11, 2020, to a reward of 6.25BTC per block and the next halving should occur about the same time in the next 4 years.
A Bitcoineer is a person who believes in Bitcoin.
BitLicense is a business license issued by the New York State Department of financial services, that shows permission for regulated electronic currency activities.
A Block is a blockchain file that contains information on completed transactions over a particular period.
Block Reward
A Block Reward are the coins that are awarded to cryptocurrency miners who solve the cryptographic problem needed to make a new block on a particular blockchain.
Block Time
Block time is the time taken for a blockchain-based system to create a new block.
Blockchain 1.0
Blockchain 1.0 is the earliest form of blockchain technology, which focuses on cryptocurrency and decentralization.
Blockchain Developement
Blockchain development involves developing and optimizing blockchain protocols, the creation of blockchain systems architecture, smart contract development, and web apps using blockchain technology. Learn more.
Blockchain Trilemma
The blockchain trilemma is a set of three problems that confront blockchains: decentralization, security, and scalability.
Bonding Curve
A bonding curve is a mathematical curve that explains the relationship between the price of a particular asset and its supply.
A Bounty is a reward that users receive by performing particular tasks committed to them by a project or a blockchain.
Brian Armstrong
Brian Armstrong is the founder of the cryptocurrency exchange, known as Coinbase, which is based in the United States.
Browser Extension
A Browser Extension is a plugin for a browser that has embedded additional functions.
A Bubble is when an asset is traded far above its total value.
A Bull is a person that believes that prices will increase. Such a person is said to be bullish about price or the market.
Cryptocurrencies are burned when they have moved away from circulation permanently.
Buy the Dip (BTD)
A Buy the Dip (BTD) is a confident statement by supporters of a cryptocurrency for people to buy while its price is low.

C++ is the name of a programming language that allows development on multiple platforms.
Candlesticks are graphical representations that show changes in price at a particular time. A candlestick provided data on opening price, closing price, high and low.
Capital Funds
Capital Funds is the money provided in the form of equity or debt to run a company or venture.
Cardano is a public blockchain platform, founded by Ethereum co-founder Charles Hoskinson. It is built on a proof of stake protocol.
Cash is the common form of money. Its examples include banknotes and physical cash.
Central Bank
Central Bank is the (central) bank that is responsible for the formulation and transmission of monetary policy and regulation of member banks.
Central Ledger
A central ledger is a computer file or in some cases, a physical book used to record transactions in a centralized manner.
Centralized Exchange (CEX)
Centralized exchanges are a type of cryptocurrency exchange whose operations are controlled by a centralized company and manages centrally.
Chains split
Chains split is another term used to describe cryptocurrency hard forks – that is, the division of a single coin into other independently managed projects.
A chargeback is the return of money used for a particular transaction, usually made with debit or credit cards.
Cipher a computer code that can be used to encrypt and decrypt information.
Circulating Supply
Circulating Supply is the amount of coins circulating in the market and the hands of the public is known as the circulating supply.
Close is the closing price of an asset.
A co-signer is an entity or person, which has partial control over a cryptocurrency wallet.
A coin may be referred to as the single unit of a cryptocurrency or one that can operate independently.
Coin Mixer
A coin mixer is a tool that allows its users to mix cryptocurrency transactions between addresses such that, the sender or receiver address is traceable.
Collateralized Debt Position (CDP)
A collateralized debt position is own in which collateral is locked in smart contracts to generate stable coins.
Composable Token
Composable Token is a non-fungible token based on the ERC-988 standard extension that gives a token the ability to own other non-fungible tokens (ERC-721) and fungible tokens (like ERC-20).
A consensus is reached when all participants of a network agree on the content and or of the block of a blockchain.
Consensys is a blockchain company that offers enterprise solutions in blockchain as well as developer tools.
Core wallet
A core wallet can contain the entire blockchain as against just a piece of blockchain.
Craig Wright
Craig Wright is an Australian computer scientist who claims to be the inventor of Bitcoin-Satoshi Nakamoto.
Cross-Chain Communication
Cross-Chain Communication exists to enable blockchains to verify data and transactions without third-party interference.
Crypto Debit Card
Crypto Debit Card is a type of debit card that allows its users to make different payments with cryptocurrencies.
A cryptocurrency is a digital currencies.
Cryptocurrency Pairs
Cryptocurrency pairs are used by exchanges to enable the trading of different tokens.
Cryptojacking is the use of another person/entity’s computer to mine cryptocurrency without their express permission. Cybercriminals hack into unsuspecting victims’ computers to steal computing power and mine cryptocurrencies without the users hardly noticing. Learn more.
Currency is the medium of exchange that determines value.
is a movement that publicizes the use of cryptography to advance social and political progress.

Data Privacy
Data privacy is the aspect of data protection that focuses on managing sensitive data.
Day Trading
Day trading includes acts of buying and selling a range of assets to make a profit based on changes in price within a single day.
Dead Cat Bounce
Dead Cat Bounce is a temporary recovery in prices after a previously sustained decrease.
Decentralized Applications (Dapps)
Decentralized Applications (Dapps) is a type of application that runs on a decentralized network.
Decentralized Database
A decentralized database is a storage innovation that combines decentralized technology with high-end computing to store data across multiple nodes.
Decentralized Identifier (DID)
A decentralized identifier (DID) is identifying information that can be issued by an independent decentralized platform that shows proof of ownership of digital identity.
Decentralized Social Media
Decentralized Social Media is a social media platform that is based on blockchain.
Deep Web
Deep Web is a part of the internet that cannot be accessed through common search engines.
DeFi Aggregator
A DeFi aggregator brings trade from different DeFi platforms together into one place.
Delegated Proof-of-stake (dPOS)
Delegated Proof-of-stake (dPOS) is an alternative to the proof of work and proof of stake consensus algorithms.
Depth Chart
Depth Chart is a graph-like representation of the bid and asks prices based on limit orders.
Derivatives market
Derivatives market is a public market for derivatives allows for the trading of instruments like futures, options, and contracts which are derived from other forms of cryptocurrency assets.
Dex Aggregator
Dex Aggregator are blockchain-based platforms that allow cryptocurrency traders to benefit from a large variety of financial tools usually with high liquidity.
Digital technologies include tools that can generate, store, and, process data.
Digital Asset
Digital Asset is a digital representation of something with a store of value.
Digital Commodity
A Digital Commodity is a commodity that exists digitally.
Digital Signature
Digital Signature is used to prove the authenticity of digital communication.
A dip is observed when the market experiences a short or long downward turn in prices.
Distributed Denial of service (DDoS) Attack
Distributed Denial of service (DDoS) Attack is an attempt to disrupt the operation of a network or server by flooding it with traffic.
Distributed Network
A Distributed Network is a network in which the applications and data are based on multiple sources against just one source.
A Dolphin is someone who holds a moderate amount of a particular cryptocurrency.
Double Spending
Double Spending is the undesirable potential of a cryptocurrency is to be spent twice.
Dumping occurs when a large portion of a particular cryptocurrency is sold off suddenly in a short period.
Dusting Attack
A dusting attack is simply a malicious activity where a person deliberately sends units of digital coins to the wallet of an unsuspecting person in other to steal their privacy. A suspicious inflow of coins into the digital wallet could grant a hacker access through some malicious programs in other to de-anonymize the wallet owner or the wallet provider. Learn more.
DYOR is the acronym of Do Your Research. It is advised for potential investors to do due diligence in research about a project before investing.

E-signature is an electronic signature used in the lace of a physical signature.
Elliott waves
Elliott waves is a trading tool used by cryptocurrency traders.
Email Spoofing
Email Spoofing is a trick to make users believe that a message came from another source.
Encryption is a way of protecting data by turning it into a code.
ERC-20 tokens are tokens designed and used only on the Ethereum platform
Escrow is an arrangement (maybe a person or a tool) that holds on to assets or cash while a buyer and seller complete a transaction.
Ethereum Improvement Proposal (EIP)
Ethereum improvement proposal (EIP), includes standards for the Ethereum platform that includes Client APIs, protocol specifications, contract standards, and core protocol specifications.
Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM)
The Ethereum virtual machine is the runtime environment for every smart contract. All of Ethereum node runs on the EVM to enable the maintenance of consensus throughout the blockchain.
Exchange-Traded Fund
An exchange-traded fund is a security that tracks an array of assets like cryptocurrencies, stocks, and bonds.

FATF Travel Rule
The FATF Rule mandates virtual asset providers to regulate information sharing for some large transactions.
A Faucet is a reward system in cryptocurrency, that rewards users for performing certain tasks.
Fiat On-Ramp
Fiat On-Ramp is a way to get cryptocurrency regular fiat.
Financial Action Task Force (FATF)
Financial Action Task Force (FATF) is an organization with reach throughout the globe that aims to fight money laundering as well as financing terrorists.
Financial Transactions and Reports Analysis Centre (FINTRAC)
Financial Transactions and Reports Analysis Centre (FINTRAC) is Canada’s financial intelligence agency.
A fish is a person who has a small investment in crypto.
Flash Loan Attack
Flash Loan Attack is an occurrence where a smart contract is exploited for malicious purposes.
Flippening is a theoretical occurrence where Ethereum’s market capitalization overtakes that of Bitcoin.
Fork (Blockchain)
Fork (Blockchain) is also known as chain spits occurs when an alternate version of the blockchain is created, leaving two blockchains to operate at the same time.
Front Running
Front running occurs when a transaction is placed on a queue with the knowledge of a future transaction.
FUD is an acronym that stands for ‘Fear, Uncertainty, Doubt.’ It usually discourages people from buying cryptocurrency.
Fundamental Analysis
Fundamental analysis is research on an asset-based on some key metrics like a team, technology, growth prospects, and other factors.
A futures contract is a legal agreement between parties to buy or sell a particular asset at a predetermined price at a particular time in the future.

An increase in value and profit.
Gas Limit
Gas Limit is a term used on the Ethereum network used to refer to the amount highest amount of gas that a user will be willing to spend on a transaction.
Gavin Wood
Gavin wood is one of the founders of Ethereum and the co-founder of Parity Technologies.
Genesis Block
Genesis Block is the first block of data that is processed and validated to form a new blockchain.
Geth is the short form for Go Ethereum. It is the command line that enables developers to mine Ethereum, run full Ethereum nodes, execute smart contracts, and mine Ethereum.
Gold-Backed Cryptocurrency
Gold-Backed Cryptocurrency is a cryptocurrency whose value is pegged to a commensurate value of gold. For example, one gram of gold to be equal to one piece of the coin.
Governance Token
Governance Token is a token that can be used to vote on any decision that affects an ecosystem.
Group Mining
Group mining is an occurrence where many people or organizations come to mine together.

Hal Finney
Hal Finney was a cryptographer who worked with Satoshi Nakamoto in the development of Bitcoin.
Hard Cap
A hard cap is the maximum supply of a digital asset.
Hardware Security Module
Hardware Security Module is a type of device that encrypts data and secures digital keys.
A hash is the output of a hashing algorithm, which creates a unique, alpha-numeric string to secure a selection of data.
Hash Power / Hash Rate
Hash rate is the unit of measurement for the amount of computing power being consumed by a network to continually operate, usually in hash per second H/s.
Helium (HNT)
Helium (HNT) is a cryptocurrency on a decentralized blockchain for the internet of things (IoT) devices. Helium cryptocurrency can be earned when hotspots give and validate network coverage. So, anyone can earn HNT by being a network operator and providing connectivity. Helium was created in July 2019.
Hierarchical Deterministic wallet (HD)
A Hierarchical Deterministic wallet (HD) is a wallet that uses a single master key of 12 mnemonic phrases.
HODL is a type of investment strategy where the crypto asset is held for an extended period, irrespective of changes in market price. The term first became known, due to a typo error while trying to write ‘hold’. The term is now commonly expanded to mean “Hold on for Dear Life
Hosted Wallet
A Hosted Wallet is a wallet managed by a third-party service.
Hot Wallet
A hot wallet is a cryptocurrency wallet that stores its crypto assets online.
Hybrid PoW/PoS
Hybrid PoW/PoS is an approach that brings together the security from proof of work and the governance and energy efficiency that comes with proof of stake, on a hybrid consensus distribution algorithm on the network.

Impermanent Loss
Impermanent loss occurs when a liquidity provider loses money temporarily because of volatility in currency pairs.
Infinite Approval
Infinite Approval is the pre-approving of a smart contract, to permit a platform to spend any amount of your coins.
Inflation is a sustained increase in the general price level and a fall in the purchasing power of money.
Initial Coin Offering (ICO)
Initial Coin Offering (ICO) is a type of crowdfunding that uses crypto as a means of raising capital for startups.
Initial Public Offering (IPO)
Initial Public Offering (IPO) is the process of a company offering its shares to the public for purchase on the stock market for the first time.
Instamine is when a big portion of a coin’s total supply is distributed to investors just after launch.
Interest Rates
An interest rate is a time-dependent charge made in proportion to an amount lent, borrowed, or deposited.
Internet of Things (IoT)
Internet of things (IoT) is a network of interconnected devices, software, and sensors that can connect and exchange data with each other in real-time over the internet.
Intrinsic Value
Intrinsic Value is a term used in relation to assets. It depicts an asset’s actual worth based on a complex financial estimation, rather than its current price.
IOU is an acronym that stands for ‘I owe you, is a document stating that one party owes another a debt.

JavaScript is a programming language that was invented to program web browsers, but is now used for other things like native application development.
JOMO is an abbreviation of “Joy Of Missing Out”; used to express happiness in a past decision to not invest in a financial instrument.
JVM is a software that acts like a computer and runs other software programmed in Java, Kotlin, and some other programming languages.

A Keylogger is a malicious spying tool used by fraudulent actors to record keystrokes made by users of a platform.
Know Your Customer (KYC)
Know Your Customer (KYC) are mandatory checks by crypto exchanges to verify the identities of their clients.

Lambo is the short form for Lamborghini, an Italian luxury car that many crypto investors dream of buying when they earn good profits. More recently used as the slang ‘when Lambo?’ meaning-when are will going to get rich from this project?
Layer 1
A Layer 1 blockchain is a set of improvements on the base protocol of blockchain.
A ledger is a record of financial transactions that cannot be changed.
Leverage is the money that a trader borrows from a broker to gain more exposure to the market, leverage enables traders to bigger positions for a potentially bigger profit.
Lightning Network
Lightning network is a solution developed to solve the scalability problem of Bitcoin, to allow transactions to be processed faster with the use of a second layer protocol.
Liquidation involves the conversion of a cryptocurrency to fiat.
Liquidity Bootstrapping Pool
Liquidity Bootstrapping Pool is a contract that manages a pool of different tokens to be used on an exchange.
Liquidity Provider Tokens (LP Tokens)
Liquidity Provider Tokens (LP Tokens) are tokens issued to liquidity providers on DEXes that run on an automated market maker.
Liveness is a guarantee that a system will continue to supply data and function. It also means that it a system will not be susceptible to any form of shutdown from an authority.

A mainet is an independent blockchain that uses its technology and protocol on its network.
Man-in-the-Middle Attack (MITM)
A man-in-the-middle attack occurs when a bad actor places himself illegally in the middle of a conversion to eavesdrop.
Margin Trading
Margin trading is a practice used by crypto traders to borrow money from a broker to trade in the market.
Market Capitalization (MCAP)
Market capitalization is the total value of all the coins in circulation for a particular cryptocurrency.
Market OrderA buy or sell order to execute the trade at the best available price.
A Market Order is a buy or sell order to execute the trade at the best available price.
Market Taker
A market taker takes the order to buy or sell to make orders filled.
Medium of Exchange
A medium of exchange is a system that is used to enable a trade of goods between two parties.
MetaMask is an online digital wallet that enables users to store and transfer cryptocurrency.
A micropayment is a very minuscule transaction carried out online, usually less than a cent.
This is observed in cryptocurrencies that reward miners whose computer/hash is used to creating blocks. Cryptocurrencies which can generate new cryptocurrencies through block confirmations are minable.
Miners are individuals or companies who contribute their hashing power to a blockchain.
Mining is the process that adds blocks to a blockchain. For some cryptocurrencies, it is the process where new coins are minted.
Mining Difficulty
Mining difficulty refers to how difficult it is to find the next hash.
Mining Pool
A mining pool is an arrangement where some miners pool their resources together to find the next block.
Mining Rig
A mining rig is equipment used for mining cryptocurrencies.
Mnemonic Phrase
The mnemonic phrase consists of a group of phrases that are used sequentially to access a wallet or restore it.
Monet Transfer License
Monet Transfer License is also known as a money transmitter, they provide money transfer services.
A crypto asset is said to the moon when it experiences a sustained price increase.
Moving Average Convergence Divergence (MACD)
Moving Average Convergence Divergence (MACD) is a crypto trading indicator.
Multi-Signature (Multi-Sig)
A multi-sig is extra layer security that requires multiple keys to authorize a transaction.

Network refers to all the active nodes within a blockchain at a particular time.
Nick Szabo
Nick Szabo is the inventor of Bit Gold and smart contracts.
A no-coiner is someone who does not hold any cryptocurrency and does not believe in the success of cryptocurrencies.
Nominators are one of the two parties who use the nominated proof-of-stake (PoS) consensus algorithm.
A non-custodial refers to a setup where private keys are held by users themselves as against exchanges or wallets storing them.

OceanDAO (Ocean Protocol)
Ocean Decentralized Autonomous Organization is a grant proposal scheme governed by a community that enables OCEAN token users to have a say on funding grants for projects in the community. Its main goal is to completely decentralize the ecosystem of the Ocean protocol.
Off-Chain Governance
Off-Chain Governance is a form of off-chain mechanism based on prevailing global blockchain network (and other on-chain) parameters, and it is used in regulating the on-chain protocols and the entire blockchain network. It evolves periodically and helps to improve the ecosystem. Off-chain and on-chain governance both contribute to the growth of the blockchain community.
Off-line storage
Off-line storage is any device used to store crypto assets without an internet connection.
Offshore Account
An Offshore Account is an account (bank, others) owned by an individual in a foreign country mostly to elude tax or protect asset(s). Using offshore financial services is legal, however, it is mostly used for illegal activities such as eluding taxes, money laundering, etc.
OKEx Chain
OKEx Chain was created by OKEx exchange to improve the speed, safety, and confidentiality of the DeFi structure which is paramount to building a DEX. It uses the Tendermint consensus model, SDK, and IBC protocol from Cosmos to interoperate from chain to chain.
On-Chain Data Availability (OCDA)
On-Chain Data Availability (OCDA) is a hybrid storage system that enables users to either store their data on-chain or off-chain. When it is off, on-chain stores data at 2,025 transactions per second, and while on, off-chain mode stores data at about 16,400 transactions per second. The vibrant scalability solutions are called Volitions. It is a new feature included in the updated Loopring version 3.0.
On-Ledger Currency
On-Ledger Currency is a currency was created and also used on the same Ledger such as Bitcoin.
Online Storage
An Online Storage is Crypto storage that works only when connected to the internet.
Ontorand Consensus Engine (OCE)
Ontorand Consensus Engine is the consensus model used by the Ontology blockchain. It was created by NEO inventors and centered on chain DNA. It uses the proof of stake and verifiable random function technology. OCE needs a low hashing rate and is highly scalable with its transaction verification speed as fast as the available internet speed.
Open price (open)
Open is one of the basic four data points, OHLC(open, high, low, close) used daily in the local stock market. Trades occur during open hours(9 am to 4 pm) in a local stock market with no activities on weekends, hence there varying OHLC prices daily. Crypto market opens 24/7 having no OHLC price, however, they are on some charts to depict when the local stock market opened daily.
Open Representative Voting(ORV)
ORV is a consensus model used by the Nano network. It allows Nano holders to delegate their assets to elect representative candidates of their choice. Elect representatives determines valid transactions and a new block is formed once a quorum is attained.
Opera Mainnet
Opera mainnet creates decentralized apps for the Fantom network using an open-source format. It has numerous smart contract abilities that work together with Ethereum since they both support high-level programming language(solitude) and incorporation with EVM. It is backed by Asynchronous Byzantine Fault Tolerant.
Optimistic Rollup (OR)
Optimistic Rollup (OR) is a Layer-2 scaling resolution that enables interoperability of Ethereum VM and Optimistic VM on Ethereum network to enhance the OR tech functions. The term shows how optimistic aggregators can avoid fraud cases while operating.
Options Market
Options Market is an asset market platform where options contracts can be traded. It enables investors to trade with either put or call options on a particular asset.
An Orchestrator sets up the computational facilities on a Live peer network and also handles the sharing and proper transcoding of videos.
Order Book
Each security/asset exchange firm has its electronic record of buy and sees orders grouped by price, this record is known as the Order book. It records assets/shares that are sold or purchased and their price tags sequentially. It has two segments: the sell list (red) and the buy list (green). It can only be accessed online on an exchange’s platform.
Order Slicing
The order slicing scheme is implemented by official investors whereby they purchase or sell large quantities of a particular asset in bits to avoid high price instability and secrecy. It is done using an order book and it helps to safeguard investment resources.
Orphan Block
When a blockchain network mined two blocks simultaneously, only one is accepted and the one rejected, because of lag time, is the orphan/stale block. Consequently, it leads to soft work which means the network’s nodes would be upgraded hence, isolating the stale block. An orphan block is a valid block. However, it is useless because it is isolated from the original blockchain.
Over-optimization happens in a condition whereby a computerized system is used to build an algorithm for trading that is functional theoretically but failed to perform as expected when applied to a practical market trading situation. This situation often happens if the trading algorithm built is too sophisticated for the computer to comprehend or handle which causes the computational system to be overloaded.
When an asset is traded at a price that is higher than its supposed worth, such asset is said to be overbought and the current price is sometimes expected to decline soon. However, most times, such price refuses to fall or decline as the price situation may persist for a long while, hence price does not instantly decrease in a short-term scenario. An overbought or oversold asset can be detected by technical indicators. It involves analyzing various metrics like the trading vol., Bollinger Bands, etc.
OXT is a token coin owned by the Orchid crypto network. It aids the network’s blockchain community built on VPN. The Orchid blockchain enables its users to purchase bandwidth using OXT which is termed the probabilistic nano payment model. The network is a market platform that allows peer-to-peer transactions where users can buy bandwidth from Virtual Private Network providers.

Parachains are independent blockchains that connect to the main relay chain. They are created by the Polkadot network and are used on Polkadot and Kusama Networks’ main relay chains.
Parachain Slot Auction
A parachain slot auction refers to how several teams are selected to be parachain masters within 6-24 months. Potential parachains compete by staking KSM or DOT in a validator node on Kasuma or Polkadot network respectively.
Parallel Processing or Parallelization
Parallelization is used to simultaneously process multiple computations in parallel order. It helps to hasten the transaction process and improve the scalability of a network.
Parity Technologies
Parity Technologies is a blockchain firm that creates decentralized computing apps that enhances the scalability, security, and interoperability for the future generation of decentralized services for NGOs, big firms, consortiums, etc.
Passive Yield
Passive yield is any revenue realized from an investment that is mostly on a long-term basis. cryptocurrency investors yield passive income when they purchase crypto-assets and earn interest on them over time.
Password Manager
A password manager is an online program that stores and manages a user’s passwords. It can also generate and retrieve complex passwords.
Path Payment
Path Payment is a payment done in currency but delivered in another currency. it is processed by a decentralized exchange on the Stellar Network. They are atomic and help to prevent issues whereby consumers receive assets they did not order for.
PAX Gold (PAXG) is an ERC-20 stablecoin which is an enhanced method of buying gold. Each PAX Gold asset is pegged on a 1:1 ratio to one troy ounce out of a 400-ounce London Good Delivery gold bar that is stored in Brinks Security vaults in London.
Paxos Standard (PAX)
Paxos Standard (PAX) is an ERC-20 stablecoin that is pegged at a 1:1 ratio to the US dollar and supported by proven reserves of US enables users to use Paxos Standard financial services such as firm brokerage and settlement for institutions.
Peer to Peer (P2P)
A peer-to-peer (P2P) blockchain network is a decentralized scheme designed to benefit all entities involved in a transaction. It works by enabling several nodes to interoperate thereby creating a platform that allows important data to be transferred across.
Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Marketplace
A P2P marketplace is a decentralized blockchain platform that connects buyers with sellers to create an open, global, computational marketplace that benefits all parties involved.
Peg is a strategy for holding the value of two crypto-assets on an equal basis (1:1). It allows investors to purchase or sell assets peg to their native assets at the same value eg. The BEP2 Binance Chain version of bitcoin is pegged to Bitcoin.
The permaweb is a human-readable program that enables users to access the list of websites and dApps on the Arweave network. It can be accessed online through web browsers.
Permissionless Innovation
Permissionless innovation is any blockchain-based network that does not require any permission to perform any transaction. Open public blockchains are mainly permissionless, while closed private blockchain systems are permissioned.
Perpetual Swap
A perpetual swap ( perpetual futures contract) enables investors to purchase or sell any asset at any point in time. It is traded with cash and has no expiry date.
Physical Bitcoins
Physical bitcoins are metals designed like bitcoins with hidden private keys under a tamper-proof sticker or hologram. They are bought pre-loaded with a particular cryptocurrency value. They once redeemed, cannot be re-used.
Plasma Chain
A plasma chain is an off-chain, Layer-2 scaling solution. It refers to a particular kind of non-custodial sidechain that enables users to withdraw their funds and revert to the mainchain in case of errors or security infringements.
Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS) is an easy and effective method for users to build and operate cloud-based apps individually without the aid of any software engineer. Its cloud computing can be designed for different types of computer network systems, including for use with distributed blockchain cloud computing solutions.
Point of Sale (POS)
Point of sale is the physical or virtual location of a user’s purchase of an item. It can also refer to the physical, stationery, electronic point-of-sale device used for online and physical transactions.
Polkadot Relay Chain
The Relay Chain is the basic protocol and most important part of the Polkadot network. It maintains the proper functioning of the network with the aid of a hybrid GRANDPA and BABE Nominated Proof-of-Stake (NPoS) consensus mechanism.
Ponzi Scheme
A Ponzi scheme refers to a fraudulent investment or deception where potential victims are promised high return rates for the minimal risk taken. It often uses funds from new members to offer profit to earlier investors. It crashes when funds stop coming in.
An investment portfolio is a compilation of different financial properties such as cryptocurrencies, stocks, etc. Diversification, risk tolerance, and time parameters are important factors when compiling and adjusting a portfolio. It can be managed by the owner or a financial advisor.
Position Management System (PMS)
A Position Management System refers to an algorithmic portfolio created by Caspian, to help customers oversee their trading positions on multiple exchanges and wallets, monitor real-time and historical P&L data, etc that improve the trading and investment process.
Post-mining is an activity of mining new coins after a blockchain project has been deployed but before public mining is done. Post-mining happens between the tokenization snapshot date but before the platform’s code has been executed and outsiders can mine tokens.
Pre-mining is a practice that creates a specific number of coins for a blockchain project before a public sale occurs, often awarding them to the developers and founders of the project.
Prediction Market
A prediction market is a platform where spectators practically bet on their determined expectation for a particular event, data set, or desired outcome with prices trade between 0 and 100%. It can also involve betting on the future outcome of events via derivatives trading with high leverage.
Pretexting refers to a fraudulent activity whereby an attacker impersonates a trusted figure like a bank official to defraud or manipulate victims into sharing sensitive information or capital.
Price Movement (Price Action)
Price movement refers to the occurrence of a change in price over time for a particular asset in the market. Price action forms the foundational basis for market trading and charting interfaces.
Primary Market
The primary market is the part of the capital market that issues and sells equity-based securities directly by the issuer for the first time via Initial Public Offerings (IPOs), private placements, preferred allotments, and rights issuances.
Prime Rate
The prime rate is the interest rate central. The federal funds rate is the source of the prime rate, while the prime rate serves as the starting point for most retail bank interest rates, including for mortgages, personal loans, and small business loans.
Principal-Agent Dilemma
The principal-agent dilemma is a dispute in preferences found between a person, or group (principal) and a party who has been authorized to act on their behalf (agent).
Private Blockchain
A private blockchain system is a decentralized network that is run by a single entity and used by large firms to solve speed and scalability issues. They are centralized.
Private Sale
A private sale is the first round of funding that is allocated to a blockchain startup before the pre-sale and public sale (ICO). It helps to give large institutional investors the chance to invest large amounts of capital to fund the development of projects early on.
Profit and Loss (P&L)
Profit and Loss (P&L) is a macro-level measurement of how much capital has been gained or lost through trading for an individual or institution. P&L is an important data point for institutional investment firms.
Programmability is the ability for a computerized system to be created through the process of software development via various types of programming languages. Programmable blockchain networks are more cost-effective, secure, and easily accessible.
Proof of Authority (PoA)
Proof of Authority is a consensus mechanism that leverages the value of identity and reputation instead of cryptographic assets or computational power. It has a limited number of nodes to verify transactions and remarkable scalability and transaction speeds.
Proof of Capacity (PoC)
Proof of Capacity is a consensus mechanism that makes use of the available hard drive space in a miner’s device to decide its mining rights and validate transactions rather than expending computational power.
Proof of Coverage (PoC)
Proof of Coverage is a consensus mechanism employed by the Helium Network. It relies on mining to achieve network consensus and miners are known as Hotspots.
Proof of History (PoH)
Proof of History is a consensus methodology on the Solana blockchain that incorporates the measurement of time into a blockchain ledger with the intent of scaling and streamlining transactional throughput.
Proof of Replication (PoRep)
Proof of Replication is a consensus algorithm used to verify the productivity status of participants on the Filecoin network via the zk-SNARK cryptographic proof technology.
Proof of Service (PoSe)
Proof of Service is the mechanism on the DASH blockchain network used to determine if a stake-bearing master node is providing the correct services in good faith to users who have contributed coins to it.
Proof of Stake (PoS)
Proof of Stake networks rewards participants to stake native coins in a network of validator nodes. It has high transaction scalability, speed, transparency and it is energy-efficient as compared with PoW.
Proof of Validation (PoV)
Proof of Validation is a unique Proof-of-Stake consensus mechanism that works to achieve consensus by evaluating the stake of validator nodes.
A prospectus is a formal disclosure document that describes an investment offering to potential buyers. It is often shared by underwriters and brokerages to potential buyers who may buy security via an Initial Public Offering (IPO).
Protocol Buffers (Protobuf)
Protocol Buffers is a Google-based methodology built to serialize structured data. It enables different database networks to incorporate the use of more software programming languages to be more adaptable as their capabilities expand.
Pseudo-Anonymity (Pseudonymity)
Pseudo-anonymity is used to describe a hidden user with a concealed identity. A pseudonymous person uses a fake name to conceal their true identity.
Public Blockchain
A public blockchain is a distributed system that is open for general use, that is permission is needed before accessing networks based on a public blockchain.
Public Ledger
A public ledger is a decentralized database that holds records of transactions and other important details of a blockchain network.
Public Sale or Initial Coin Offering (ICO)
A public sale is the third funding round that a blockchain startup offers after the private sale and pre-sale rounds. To participate in public sales, the Retail & large investors and the entire public have to register and provide the valid Know Your Customer (KYC) identification details.
Public-Key Infrastructure
Public-key infrastructure is a set of policies, procedures, and hardware-software combinations required for the online authentication of users and devices. It helps to create, manage, share, utilize and save the virtual certificate and manage public-key encryption.
Pure Proof of Stake (PPoS)
The Pure proof of stake refers to the decentralized Byzantine Agreement protocol on the Algorand network. It has a little entry barrier as only 1 ALGO is needed to own a node. It aims at processing transactions quickly.

Qtum is a form of the bitcoin blockchain that works on the proof of stake consensus mechanism. Its unspent transaction output (UTXO) model is enhanced to use smart contracts. It can work with Ethereum (and other) Virtual Machines.
Quant Zone
Quant Zone is a tool used to design programmed rules for executing automated trading protocols on the FTX crypto exchange. Quant Zone rules can be created and shared by and among users.
Quantum Computing
Quantum computing refers to an enhanced theoretical computing system that processes data faster and more efficiently than local computing systems. It uses superposition, entanglement, and other quantum states.
Quick Response Code (QR Code)
QR code is a matrix barcode that contains vital info about the attached object in an optically machine-readable label. These codes have trackers that lead to mobile apps or websites. They store data via the 4 standard coding methods which are numeric, alphanumeric, kanji, binary.

Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)
Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is an electromagnetic mechanism used in tracking and authenticating objects, it is powered by the VechainThor blockchain network. An RFID tag has a radio transponder, transmitter, and receiver. It shows the location of the item it is attached to via an RFID device reader.
Random Beacon (Keep Network)
Random Beacon is a blockchain-built device that generates random numbers used by the KEEP blockchain network to select transaction signers (they create new bitcoin pairs of keys used in creating tBTC tokens). The randomness improves safety.
Rank is the relative position of a cryptocurrency by market capitalization.
Ransomware as a Service (RaaS)
Ransomware as a Service (RaaS) is a ransomware software program services are offered by dubious cybercriminal experts to other online criminals who want to attack potential victims. They are advertised on dark web marketplaces and payments are in cryptocurrencies.
RARI is an ERC-20 token of the Rarible network. It enables its users to determine the governance structure of the network.
Rarible is a renowned peer-to-peer exchange platform for a wide variety of Non-Fungible Tokens. Payments are in form of ETH.
Real Estate Investment Trust (REIT)
Real Estate Investment Trust (REIT) is a firm that runs real estate for revenue generation purposes. It usually uses capital from investors for its operations, hence a purchaser can financially benefit without owning any property.
Recall Block
The recall block is the first block in the history of the Arweave protocol which must be presented by miners to create a new block in the network. It is linked together with the new block and the preceding one.
Reciprocally Analogous Virtual Machine (VM)
A reciprocally analogous VM enables two or more Virtual machines to interoperate beneficially. A virtual machine is a virtual device that can mimic a computer system/OS/software application.
Recovery Share
Recovery Share is a form of security whereby users designate the numbers of shares to be produced as well as the percent needed to renew a wallet as well as its public/private keys. This mechanism makes wallet renewal processes easier and it is also safe and secure.
When something is governed or controlled by a particular set of rules, it is said to be regulated.
Regulatory Compliance
Regulatory compliance is a way government bodies like (SEC) ensure certain enterprises obey specified guidelines. The act is mainly to protect the rights of investors and to ensure all transactions are transparent, efficient, and fair.
Relative Strength Index (RSI)
The relative strength index is an investment metric used in calculating whether an asset is oversold or overbought. The technical analytic device is like a line graph or oscillator that moves up or down on a scale of 0 to 100. When it reads 70 and above, the asset is overbought while 30 and below means oversold.
Relayer (0x)
Relayers are users who handle off-chain order books on the 0x decentralized exchange. Their main function is to oversee list, sell and buy orders as well as to deduct transaction charges.
A remittance simply refers to a payment made online via a service provider, cryptocurrency wallet, or other tech-enabled financial. Blockchain-based remittance medium is faster and more cost-effective than other means.
Remix refers to an online integrated development environment that uses a Solidity programming language to write Ethereum smart contracts. It helps developers to easily write or test a code via its graphic user display and other helpful tools.
Remote Procedure Call (RPC)
A remote procedure call occurs when a computer uses a program to execute a procedure on another computer through a discrete address space. This is done via coding or by leveraging location transparency to exclude details on the remote interaction.
Repair Miners
Repair miners are upcoming mining nodes in the Filecoin network aimed at self-healing the network’s protocol.
Replay Attack
Replay Attack is an attack launched to intercept comms between a sender and a receiver with the sole purpose of leaking sensitive info.
Reporting in institutional investment refers to the medium of compiling information and data used in monitoring a portfolio’s productivity. It is used to analyze both long/short trading terms. Specialized reporting tools allow investment firms to analyze profit & loss data, execution data, position size, entry type, exposure, etc.
Reserve Rights (RSR) Token
Reserve Right Token is a governance token that determines the efficiency of the Reserve protocol operations. It has high price volatility that investors used in analyzing the overall worth of the network. It also plays an important part in maintaining the Reserve protocol’s integrity.
Resistance is the maximum price of a particular asset in a period.
Retargeting is an algorithm used on PoW blockchains like BTC. It is also known as a difficulty adjustment algorithm.
Return on Assets (ROA)
Return on Assets Is a mechanism used by firms to analyze how prolific their assets are. It is the percentage of a firm’s net income divided by its total number of assets. It also considers the debt level of the firm. Unlike ROE.
Revenue Participation Tokens
Revenue Participation tokens are a pair of token protocols that use one for participation and the other for payout.
The ride is an advanced programming language that uses dApp scripts, account scripts, and asset scripts to create smart contracts and decentralized applications on the Waves blockchain network. Hence, an account or asset with a script becomes a smart account or asset.
Ring Signature
With the right cryptographic keys, users can transact secretly on a particular network by concealing their digital signature. Ring signature depicts the signature algorithm’s ring-like structure. It was invented by the Monero network in 2015.
Rinkeby refers to a platform used by Ethereum to test smart contracts, network structure, and other potential features of the Ethereum 2.0 Beacon Chain. It uses a Proof of Authority (POA) consensus model that enables few nodes to mine blocks.
Risk Curve
The risk curve graphically shows the relationship between the risk taken (x-axis) and the expected return (y-axis) in an investment. It implies that the greater the risk the greater the returns in an investment. It involves multi-data points that stand for distinct assets.
A roadmap is a blockchain term that refers to a pre-planned proposal to execute a long- and short-term agenda over a calculated period. It is an important component to consider before investing in a project.
Roger Ver
Roger Ver is also known as Bitcoin Jesus is a long-term supporter of Bitcoin and bitcoin cash.
Ronin Sidechain
The Ronin sidechain is used by Axie infinity to solve scalability problems and it is linked to Ethereum. It reduces transaction period and fees and It is developed by Sky Mavis.
Roth IRA
A Roth IRA refers to a retirement account that allows US citizens to save and withdraw money without tax. Benefactors are US citizens of 59.5 years old and above who have active accounts of at least 5 years old.
Rug Pull
A rug pull refers to a fraudulent blockchain scheme that leverages Bitcoin or Ethereum to scam unsuspecting victims. It occurs when a fraudster(s) uses DEX to create and list a new asset-based on either BTC or ETH. After receiving significant investment funds the founders would withdraw and bolt away funds leaving their victims with useless assets.
Russell 3000 Index
The Russell 3000 index is an equity index weighted by market capitalization. The index was founded in and based in Britain but it is used to track the performance of the 3,000 largest publicly held U.S. stocks that make up 98% of the U.S. stock market. It has the large-cap Russell 1000 Index and the small-cap Russell 2000 index. It is launched in 1984 and is maintained by FTSE Russell.
RVN is a source code fork of BTC owned by the Ravecoin Blockchain. The token is based on the proof of work consensus mechanism.
Ryuk Ransomware
Ryuk ransomware attacks are common ransomware attacks in which a victim is unable to access essential files and then blackmailed by the attacker to pay a certain amount to release them. It accounts for tens of millions of dollars worth of damages each year.

S&P 500 (Standard and Poor’s 500)
The S&P 500 is a stock index made up of 500 of the largest companies listed on stock exchanges in the United States and consists of many of the largest tech stocks on the planet such as Apple Inc., Microsoft,, Facebook, etc.
Sandbox (Security)
Sandbox is a security measure that allows programs to operate independently of the network’s main operating system. It helps to keep the network running even when there is a system failure and also helps to examine the performance of virtual machines.
Satoshi Nakamoto
Satoshi Nakamoto is the creator and publisher of the Bitcoin whitepaper in 2008, also mined the first bitcoin block in 2009. However, to date, the identity of this individual or group is unknown.
Scalability is a blockchain term that refers to how fast and efficient a blockchain network can process data and finish transactions. Scalability, decentralization, and security are the 3 key components of an efficient blockchain network.
Scalp Trader (Scalper)
A scalp trader is an investor who enters and exits a financial position in a split second to benefit from the continuous rise in the asset’s value.
Schelling Point (Focal Point)
Schelling point is a blockchain term that means the attention of the user or designer is naturally directed towards a specific point or several focal points that make up the overall structure.
Scrypt is the hash function that is used by the Litecoin network to converts input data into an encrypted output using a PoW mechanism. It was developed to limit mining to only CPUs and GPUs.
Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA)
Secure Hash Algorithm is a form of cryptographic hash function created to keep data secure on different types of computer networks. It transfers the original data to a hash function algorithm that consists of several unique compression functions and modular additions.
Secure Proof of Stake (SPoS)
Secure Proof of Stake is Elrond Network’s enhanced version of Proof of Stake (PoS). It enables advanced security and distributed fairness while eliminating computational waste that PoW systems struggle with.
Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)
The U.S. SEC is an independent body of the U.S. federal government that proposes, implements, and regulates securities rules in the U.S. investment industry. It protects investors, maintains fair and smooth functioning of U.S. securities markets, and facilitates capital formation.
Security is an ongoing concern that companies usually seek to address via numerous policies, practices, and procedures that help detect, prevent, and monitor unauthorized access, modification, misuse, or denial of computer network resources.
Security Token
Security tokens are a tokenized stake in the ownership of any asset that has value, such as a business or a piece of real estate, which is recorded in a blockchain ledger. They offer a more flexible yet secure way to transfer, exchange, and store value.
Seed Funding (seed capital)
Seed funding refers to a very early investment to help support a startup until it gets off the ground and starts generating cash flow or is in a position to obtain further investment capital. It is often by friends and family, seed venture capital funds, etc.
Seeding refers to the process of p2p file sharing that involves uploading files that were initially downloaded for others to download. A computer connected to a P2P network generally becomes a seed after it has the desired file.
Self-Regulatory Organization (SRO)
A self-regulatory organization is a potent entity that can independently create and enforce accepted professional regulations and standards without the need for external oversight or intervention.
Sell Wall
A sell wall is a form of market manipulation when a large limit order is placed at a specific price level to sell a large amount of a certain asset that can cause a drastic drop in the price of the asset.
Semantic Web
The semantic web is created to enable machines to read internet data to improve the processes of the transaction, data usage, and the dissemination of information. It is an upcoming version of the World Wide Web (W3) that expands on the parameters set by the W3 Consortium.
Sequencer (aggregator)
Sequencer is a layer-2 scaling solution that starts transactions off-chain and finishes them on-chain. It is utilized on the Ethereum network to save capital and improve its throughput capacity.
Service Chain
A Service chain is a unique order of actions that are used to automate traffic and data flow between services in a digital network. It helps to enhance the usage of network resources to improve application performance by choosing the best routing path.
Settlement Agent Node
Settlement Agents are nodes used on the blockchain that allow settlement between the platform’s native CRO token and other stable cryptocurrencies. These nodes are rewarded by charging a .5% fee for payouts in fiat.
SHA-256 (Secure Hash Algorithm)
SHA-256 helps to secure data by utilizing a cryptographic mathematical operation to generate a unique 256-bit, 64-character random sequence of letters and numbers (hash) out of input. Its actions are irreversible.
Shard Chain
Shard chains are formed by separating a blockchain into smaller and manageable bits. It helps to prevent congestion on validator nodes hence increasing the transaction speeds.
Sharing Economy
The sharing economy is a socioeconomic system that enables p2p mutual sharing of resources within a network to benefit all its members.
Shielded Transaction
Shielded transactions are unique transactions that conceal specific data about a transaction, as an amount transferred or the account addresses, such that it is still verifiable on the blockchain.
Short Seller
A short seller sells shares borrowed from a broker, then purchase and return the same asset when its price drops. The short seller profits from the difference between the purchase price and the price the stock was initially sold. If the price rises, it would result in loss.
Sidechain (Side Chain)
A sidechain is a subordinate blockchain protocol linked to the main chain of a blockchain network and aimed at improving the interoperability, scalability, and flexibility of the network.
Signature-Based Security Program
This is a security measure aimed at preventing malware attacks by cross-checking the signature of a suspicious program with the signatures of already known malware stored in a special database.
Simplified Payment Verification (SPV)
Simplified payment verification allows a crypto wallet user to verify crypto transactions without needing to download an entire copy of the block containing the transaction the user wants to verify.
SKL is an ERC-777 token that facilitates SKALE Network staking and security, payments, rewards, and governance voting.
SKALE Network
SKALE is an Ethereum sidechain network that creates a high-throughput, low-latency, low-cost environment for decentralized app (dApp) development.
SKALE Virtualized Sub-node
SKALE virtualized sub-nodes enable each SKALE Node Core to run multiple Elastic Sidechains simultaneously. It generally enables elastic provisioning of network resources according to each user’s requirements.
Slashing is an automated preventive measure used on blockchain protocols with the PoS consensus model that penalizes a token depositor whose nodes behave suspiciously dishonestly when staking their crypto assets into the main node.
The Cardano blockchain utilizes a protocol called the Ouroboros Praos protocol. This unique consensus mechanism functions by breaking downtime into epochs that last approximately 5 days, which are then broken down into 432,000 slots.
Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs)
SMEs are businesses with a few numbers (50 to 250) employees. On a national scale, they have the most employees, hence called the lifeblood of a nation’s economy, and consist of startups and newly launched businesses.
Smart Contract
A smart contract is a decentralized, transparent, and self-executing protocol that carries out a set of instructions that is verified on a blockchain. Once it has been deployed, it is irreversible and unmodifiable.
Smart Home
A smart home is a tech-enabled home setup in which functions like heating, lighting, and appliance configurations are automated or remotely controlled via network-connected devices such as a mobile phone or tablet. It uses both hardware and software protocol to improve the convenience and efficiency of occupants.
Smart Pool (Balancer)
Smart Pools are liquidity pools whose factors can be managed and adjusted through a smart contract to enable a high degree of flexibility for liquidity providers on the Balancer platform.
Smart Treasury
Smart treasury helps to automatically manage an establishment’s funds by choosing desired liquidity provider for their smart pool and also controlling who can withdraw or deposit capital.
SMART Yield Bond (BarnBridge)
SMART Yield Bonds is a flagship product offering of the BarnBridge DeFi protocol. The SMART stands for Structured Market Adjusted Risk Tranches. More specifically, SMART Yield Bonds are tokenized tranches of debt-based derivatives designed to mitigate interest rate volatility.
Snapshot is the capability to record the current state of a blockchain network at a certain period. It also refers to a dataset that records the balance of each user’s blockchain address to fairly distribute tokens during a token airdrop giveaway or token distribution event.
Social Engineering
Social engineering refers to psychological-based techniques like distress, trust, anxiety, ignorance, confusion, etc. to manipulate individuals to perform actions that may be harmful to them like leaking sensitive data or unconsciously transferring funds to a fraudster.
Socios (Chiliz)
Socios is a blockchain-enabled sports entertainment model that rewards users who buy CHZ (chiliz’s native coin) thereby helping the Chiliz platform sustain long-term growth.
Soft Fork
A soft fork is a software update of a blockchain network whereby the updated software is still compatible and interoperable with its older computational system. It results in fewer changes in a protocol.
Software Development Kit (SDK)
A software development kit contains software development equipment created to help software engineers to produce digital applications and perform other beneficial functions. The most useful software development tools are compilers, debuggers, and software frameworks.
Software Wallet
A software wallet refers to the virtual wallet that holds a user’s public and/or private keys, hence securing their digital assets. They are stored on a desktop or mobile phone and are remotely connected to the internet. However, they are susceptible to online theft.
Solana (SOL)
Solana refers to a blockchain that uses smart contracts to locally improve the scalability and throughput on the Solana network. SOL is the native token of the Solana network and is used to pay for fees on the Solana network.
Solidity is the software development programming language used in building smart contracts that work in unison with the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM) and the Ethereum network.
Somnium Cube Token (CUBE)
Somnium Cube is an ERC-20 utility token that facilitates economic activity across the Somnium metaverse.
Source Code
Source code is a collection of informatics code that determines how a software program will operate based on a list of deterministic instructions and measures. It is the primary initial state of blockchain-based software during its creation.
Spartacus Attack
A Spartacus attack is a Sybil attack that takes place during a targeted network’s bootstrapping phase. It works by stealing the identity of other nodes within a distributed network to inherit its trust value.
Speculative Investment
A speculative investment involves taking a high degree of risk of financial loss via capital and possible profit. They are often with a high potential profit that makes them attractive opportunities for investors.
Spot Trading
Spot trading is a process that enables investors to buy an asset at its current market price rather than using leverages to reduce risks.
A stable coin is a digital currency created to have a stable value and used for investment purposes. The value of most existing stablecoins is tied directly to a predetermined fiat currency.
Staking Pool
A staking pool is a platform where stakeholders combine their computational resources and staking power to effectively verify and validate new blocks, which increases their chances of earning a portion of the ensuing block rewards.
Standard Deviation
Standard deviation is used to compute a current rate of return on an investment relative to its historical mean to determine the investment’s historical volatility. Generally, the higher the standard deviation, the higher the volatility of the investment and vice versa.
The state is a blockchain term that means the particular status of a computer system that is continually changing over time. It records and stores all the historical changes, hence it helps to restore the system to a previous version when needed.
State Machine Replication (SMR)
State Machine Replication is decentralized computing for creating fault-tolerant systems via replication of servers by deploying copies of a web service across a set of servers rather than just one.
Stellar (XLM)
Stellar is a decentralized payment protocol that allows smooth, cross-border transactions between all kinds of currency. Its native token, Stellar Lumens (XLM), is used to pay the network’s transaction fees, prevent network spam, and provide liquidity via the Stellar DEX.
Stop Loss Order
A stop-loss order is an order created to minimize business losses by setting a specific “stop” and “loss” price. When the “loss” price is reached, the asset is prepared for sale, and eventually “sold” when the stop price is reached.
Storage Node (STORJ)
The Storj network utilizes storage nodes to provide bandwidth to the network and store clients’ data in a secure, decentralized format. Any entity with a stable internet connection and excess hard drive space and bandwidth can set up a storage node.
Storj is a blockchain-enabled data storage network that allows users to access remote, decentralized data storage and retrieval services, or offer storage services by using excess hard drive space and bandwidth.
STRIDE is an acronym for “Spoofing, Tampering, Repudiation, Information Disclosure, Denial of Service, and Elevation of Privilege.” Each of these concepts is a cybersecurity threat category, and they are used as a conceptual framework to protect a system from being attacked.
Subgraph (The Graph)
A subgraph is an application programming interface used to build the global graph of some of the world’s most important public data, enabling software developers to use, index, and serve blockchain data in a cryptographically verifiable manner.
Subnetwork (Subnet)
A subnetwork is a special blockchain protocol created to function in a Layer-1 blockchain like Bitcoin or Ethereum. There is numerous subnet and they all work in harmony with and complement the parent chain.
Supermini refers to a mining rig created on the Akash network that rewards its users with AKT tokens. It also gives its users access to an AKT token node which is a powerful and portable supercomputer.
Swap (Derivative Swap)
A derivative swap is a contract that allows parties to swap the cash flows or value of one asset with another. It involves cash flows contingent on a notional principal amount like a bond or loan. It is executed by large organizations over the counter.
Swing Trader
Swing traders use swing trading techniques for investing. They actively speculate their positions and time trades meticulously as they depend on the charted technical signals to seek trading opportunities.
Switcheo is a blockchain exchange that improves the transparency and interoperability and trading of ETH, EOS, and NEO tokens on the NEO network. It uses Switcheo Token (SWTH).
Symmetric Encryption
Symmetric Encryption uses a single key to decrypt and encrypt electronic data. Both parties involved in encrypted communication have similar copies of the key which are kept personal to retain the secrecy of their discussion.
Synthetix (SNX)
Synthetix is an Ethereum-based trading platform that enables its users to exchange tokens, cryptocurrencies, stocks, fiat currencies, valuable metals in form of ERC-20 tokens via a synthetic dual-token mechanism.

T-Address is one of the two types of the address of the Zcash cryptocurrency platform. It stands for “Transparent Address”.
Tailgating (or Piggybacking)
Tailgating is a technique of breaching the security of a place, by following an authorized person in a way that does not raise suspicion.
Tamper-Proof Ledger
A Tamper-Proof Ledger is a ledger that can not be manipulated by unauthorized entities.
Taproot is the name of a major Bitcoin upgrade that was proposed in 2017. It will reduce Bitcoin transaction costs and improve privacy.
Technical Analysis (TA)
Technical Analysis (TA) is a type of financial analysis that involves using charts to study the price movement of a digital asset.
Technical Resistance Level
A Technical Resistance Level is a price point an asset has had trouble exceeding, within a given period.
Telegram is a cloud platform that enables the exchange of messages and information.
Tendermint Core Byzantine Fault Tolerance (BFT)
Tendermint Core Byzantine Fault Tolerance (BFT) is a low-level protocol composed of a blockchain consensus engine and an abstract application interface.
Terraswap is a cryptocurrency platform. Its main selling point is using liquidity pools (LPs) to make markets without the need for a central entity.
Text-Based User Interface (TUI)
A Text-Based User Interface (TUI) is an interface mainly powered by text. This is in contrast to Graphics User Interface which is mainly powered by Texts and Graphics.
The DAO is a decentralized autonomous organization. It is an investor-directed cryptocurrency venture capital.
Theta Token Minter
A Theta Token Minter is a term used in the Theta cryptocurrency platform. It is the name of a system that helps any interested individual to create a cryptocurrency token.
Throughput is the number of X that can be Y in a given Z.
Ticker Symbol
A Ticker Symbol is the symbolic form of a cryptocurrency’s ticker.
Time-Weighted Average Price (TWAP)
A Time-Weighted Average Price (TWAP) is a weighted average is calculated based on some time factor.
Timestamp is the point in time that an event occurred.
A Tipset is a set of blocks (they may not necessarily be a chain) in a blockchain.
Token Economy/Tokenomics
A Token Economy/Tokenomics is an economy of goods and services that can be run with a DeFi system.
Token Issuance
A Token Issuance is the introduction of new tokens into the total supply of tokens in a cryptocurrency platform.
Token Sale
Token Sale is the sales of pre-available tokens as a means of raising funds to create a cryptocurrency.
Token Swap
Token Swap is the exchange of tokens of a cryptocurrency for tokens of another cryptocurrency.
Tokenization is the conversion of a physical asset to a digital asset on a cryptocurrency platform.
Tokenized Security
A Tokenized Security is a cryptographic tokenized version of traditional security.
A ToolChain is a collection of tools used one after the other.
Tor Browser
Tor Browser is a web browser that accesses the web through Tor.
Total Hash Rate
Total Hash Rate (TH/s) is the estimated number of terahashes per second the Bitcoin network is performing in the last 24 hour.
Total Value Locked (TVL)
Total Value Locked (TVL) is the total monetary value of all the digital assets is locked in a decentralized financial system.
Trade Execution Coordinator (TEC)
Trade Execution Coordinator (TEC) is an entity charged with coordinating the import and export of goods, as well as other related elements.
Trading Bot
A Trading Bot is a computer (or software)trading a digital asset.
Traditional Finance (TradFi)
Traditional Finance (TradFi) is the financial systems presently used by countries of the world.
Tranche is a decentralized protocol for managing risk.
Transaction Cost Analysis (TCA)
A Transaction Cost Analysis (TCA) is an analysis of the cost of deciding to trade over a particular period.
Transaction ID (TXID)
A Transaction ID (TXID) is a combination of characters is used to identify a transaction.
Transactions Per Second (TPS)
Transactions Per Second (TPS) is a unit for describing the number of transactions that get processed in a given time.
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) is the suite of message exchange protocols that power the internet.
TRC-10 Token
TRC-10 Token is one of the Tokens of TRON.
Treasury Bill (T-Bill)
Treasury Bill (T-Bill) is a financial instrument issued by the US Treasury, with typical maturing periods of a few days to 52 weeks.
A Trend is a repeated sequence of the same pattern in a financial market.
Trezor is a digital wallet for cold storage of cryptocurrencies manufactured by SatoshiLabs, Prague Czech republic.
Trojan Banker
A Trojan Banker is a Trojan software that targets something in the banking industry.
Trojan-Ransom Malware
A Trojan-Ransom Malware is a Trojan malware is also ransomware. It is a type of cryptovirology that threatens to expose a victim’s data or block them from accessing it until a ransom is paid.
TRON protocol is one of the biggest cryptocurrency operating systems in the world. TRON is dedicated to building a decentralized internet.
TRONZ is a smart contract privacy protocol built upon the zk-SNARK methodology by TRON.
Truffle is a development toolbox for creating Ethereum smart contracts.
Trusted Execution Environment (TEE)
A Trusted Execution Environment (TEE) is an environment within a processor that a code can run in, with high privilege software (e.g. anti-virus) not being able to touch it.
Tumbler (Crypto Tumbler)
Tumbler is an entity that helps to obscure the origin of some cryptocurrency tokens, by bringing so many tokens together, mixing them up, and returning them to each contributor, the same amount of tokens they provide.
Turnkey Solution
A Turnkey Solution is a solution created from other already available solutions.
Two-Way Peg (2WP)
Two-Way Peg (2WP) is a mechanism in a blockchain protocol that enables the transfer of tokens (and other data) to an independent cryptocurrency platform.
Typosquatting is the use of a domain name similar to a target domain name, so that if the target domain name is misspelled by a user, the attacker will receive that visitor. E.g. the domain typosquats

U.S. Financial Crimes Enforcement Network
U.S. Financial Crimes Enforcement Network is a department of the U.S. Treasury is charged with administering and enforcing economic and trade sanctions against targeted entities.
UMA Token
UMA Token is the cryptocurrency of the UMA cryptocurrency platform.
Unbanked is an adjective used to describe individuals not using the services of banks.
Uniswap (UNI)
Uniswap (UNI) is a cryptocurrency platform. Its main selling point is using liquidity pools (LPs) to make markets without the need for a central entity.
United States House Committee on Financial Services
United States House Committee on Financial Services is the United States governmental entity is charged with overseeing the entire financial services industry of the country.
Unpermissioned Ledger
An Unpermissioned Ledger is a ledger that is open to contributing to. This is in contrast to permissioned ledgers which require some authorization to be contributed to.
Unstoppable Domains
Unstoppable Domains is a blockchain-powered domain name provider in San Fransico.
USD Coin (USDC) is a cryptocurrency that was created to be a crypto equivalent of the US dollar, in terms of value.
Utility Token
A Utility Token is a type of cryptocurrency token offered as something that can be spent on the platform on which it was issued.

A Validator is a thing that checks the validity of something.
Vanity Address
A Vanity Address is a customized Bitcoin address (e.g. mybitcoinaddress123). This is in contrast to addresses that are sequences of characters selected at random (e.g. skdhk2ke3l43h4lkh3).
A Vault is a crypto wallet requires further conditions to be satisfied before money can be withdrawn from it.
VeChain Token (VET)
A VeChain Token (VET) is a token of a cryptocurrency of the VeChain platform.
Venture Capital (VC)
A Venture Capital (VC) is an entity that provides the capital needed to pursue a venture, usually in exchange for some of the future profit.
Verifiable Random Function (VRF)
A Verifiable Random Function (VRF) is a technique of imposing randomness on the output of a pseudorandom generator.
Vertical Scalability
Vertical Scalability is a scalability approach involves making a computer more powerful. This is in contrast to horizontal scalability which involves handling scalability issues by bringing in more computers.
Video Transcoding
Video Transcoding is the conversion of a video from one format to another.
Virtual Commodities Association (VCA)
Virtual Commodities Association (VCA) is a non-profit organization founded to pursue the goal of regulating the U.S. virtual currency industry.
Virtual Private Network (VPN)
A Virtual Private Network (VPN) is a conceptually private network powered by the internet.
A virus is a computer malware can spread itself from one computer to another.
Vitalik Buterin
Vitalik Buterin is one of the co-founders of Ethereum.
Volatility is a measure of how volatile an asset is.

Wabi-Sabi is a popular open-source and privacy-focused Bitcoin wallet.
Wallet is a digital wallet where cryptocurrency tokens are stored.
Wash Trading
Wash Trading is the market manipulation of buying a financial instrument from oneself.
A Watchlist is a list of things to be watched.
Weak Hand
A Weak Hand is a cryptocurrency holder is likely to panic on sight of a slight fall in the value of the cryptocurrency.
Web 2.0
Web 2.0 is the second version of the world wide web. It is a version that facilitates sharing of information without having to understand web technologies at technical levels.
Web Application
A Web Application is an application software powered by web technologies.
Web of Trust
Web of Trust is a concept used in internet security to facilitate digital authentication.
Web Socket
Web Socket is a suite of technologies that make it possible to communicate bi-directionally over web technologies.
WebAssembly (WASM)
WebAssembly (WASM) is an open-standard assembly language that can be used to program web browsers.
Wei is the smallest denomination of Ethereum’s native cryptocurrency. 1,000,000,000,000,000,000 wei equals 1 ether.
When Lambo
When Lambo is a parody website that can tell you when your investment in a particular cryptocurrency will appreciate enough to buy a Lamborghini Aventador (Lambo).
Whitelabel Product
A Whitelabel Product is a product that was developed by company A for another company B and branded as though it was developed by company B.
A Whitepaper is an authoritative document introducing a creation to the world.
Winding Up
Winding Up is the wrapping of a token.
Withdrawal Allowlist
Withdrawal Allowlist is a list containing wallet addresses that tokens may only be transferred to. Tokens shall not be transferred to wallets that are not on the list.
Worldwide Asset eXchange (WAX)
Worldwide Asset eXchange (WAX) is a prominent cryptocurrency exchange that is accessible to entities from all parts of the world.
Wrapped Ether (wETH)
Wrapped Ether (wETH) is an Ether token on another ERC-20 platform.

Yearn Improvement Proposal (YIP)
Yearn Improvement Proposal is a proposal that was created by a member of Yearn. Finance, to propose an improvement to the platform.
YFI Token
YFI Token is one of the currencies of Yearn.Finance.
Yield Farming
Yield Farming is a way of making money from a cryptocurrency, by investing in decentralized finance markets.
yToken is one of the tokens of the Yearn.Finance platform. The token is derived.

Z-Address is the second type of address of Zcash. It offers more privacy compared to the T-address.
Zerion is an interface for decentralized finance (DeFi) investors, to manage their portfolios.
Zero-Knowledge Proof
Zero-Knowledge Proof is a way of proving to know something without revealing that thing itself.